With regards to autonomous vehicles, the vehicle controller is a critical component that determines the vehicle's behavior and actual trajectory. The vehicle controller takes input from the trajectory planner and sensors, processing it to generate commands that control the vehicle's speed, direction and other actuators in order to optimally achieve the system goals.
In an agricultural setting, precise vehicle control is critical in achieving optimal crop yields and maintaining consistent quality. This precision guidance reduces waste and environmental impact by accurately applying fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides only where needed. Farmers eliminate waste by reducing the amount of chemicals that enter the environment and minimizing the cost of these inputs. Further, precision guidance can help reduce fuel consumption, as the vehicle can follow an optimized path to tight tolerances, eliminating the need to cover the same area multiple times.
To control an autonomous vehicle, the vehicle controller needs access to a wide range of sensor data. This can include information about the vehicle's position, orientation, velocity, acceleration and its environment. Some of the sensors used for autonomous vehicles include cameras, lidar, radar and GPS. To generate commands that control the vehicle’s movement, the vehicle controller needs to process this sensor data in real time. Powerful computing hardware and software algorithms are essential in order to process large amounts of data quickly and accurately. To coordinate its actions with the overall goals, the vehicle controller needs to be able to communicate with other components of the autonomous vehicle, such as the perception and decision-making systems.
One key challenge in the design of a vehicle controller for autonomous vehicles is ensuring safety and reliability. Because autonomous vehicles operate without human intervention, the vehicle controller must be able to handle a wide range of scenarios and edge cases without compromising safety or performance. Using simulation and real-world testing, autonomous machines undergo rigorous testing and validation of the controller.
Several safety critical features in the development of vehicle controllers for autonomous vehicles include geo-fencing, obstacle detection and optimization for different types of terrain and conditions. Geo-fencing refers to the specified zones where an autonomous vehicle operates. These zones are important as there may be people working in the same area—on busy roads or ditches—that the autonomous vehicle should avoid. The vehicle controller needs to know exactly where the vehicle and implements are, so it can command the right velocity and curvature control commands to ensure that the vehicle and implement never breach the autonomy and hazard zone boundaries.
The perception system is responsible for detecting the presence of obstacles surrounding the vehicle and reporting their positions. The vehicle controller processes this obstacle information and commands the correct velocity control commands so that the vehicle slows down or stops, preventing it from hitting an obstacle. When the obstacle(s) move away from the vehicle, the controller can then command the vehicle to resume its autonomous operation. Off-road autonomous vehicles need to be able to handle rough terrain, steep inclines and other challenging conditions that are not encountered in traditional on-road environments. This requires specialized algorithms and control strategies that can adapt to different types of terrain and optimize the performance of the vehicle and the implement.
There are several variants of controllers that can be used for autonomous vehicles. A few examples are:
- Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers
- Model predictive controllers (MPC)
- Linear quadratic integral (LQI)
Depending on the specific requirements of the vehicle and the application, other types of controllers, such as adaptive controllers or sliding mode controllers, may also be used. The choice of controller depends on the complexity of the environment, the type of sensors available and the desired level of performance and reliability.
The development of effective and reliable vehicle and implement controllers is essential for the success of autonomous vehicles in a wide range of applications, from agriculture to construction to military operations. With advances in sensor technology, computing power and algorithms, we can expect to see continued progress in the development of vehicle controllers for autonomous vehicles in the years to come.